Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988
TITLE VII—DEATH PENALTY AND OTHER CRIMINAL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT MATTERS
Subtitle A—Death Penalty
SEC. 7001. DEATH PENALTY FOR DRUG-RELATED KILLINGS
(a) ELEMENTS OF OFFENSE—Section 408 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 848) is amended—
(1) by redesignating subsection (e) as subsection (f); and
(2) by inserting after subsection (d) the following
"(e)(1) In addition to the other penalties set forth in this section—
"(A) any person engaging in or working in furtherance of a continuing criminal enterprise, or any person engaging in an offense punishable under section 841(b)(1)(A) or section 960(b)(1) who intentionally kills or counsels, commands, induces, procures, or causes the intentional killing of an individual and such killing results, shall be sentences to any term of imprisonment, which shall not be less than 20 years, and which may be up to life imprisonment, or may be sentenced to death; and
"(B) any person, during the commission of, in furtherance of, or while attempting to avoid apprehension, prosecution, or service of a prison sentence for, a felony violation of this title or title III who intentionally kills or counsels, commands, induces, procures, or causes the intentional killing of any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer engaged in, or on account of, the performance of such officer’s official duties and such killing results, shall be sentences to any term of imprisonment, which shall not be less than 20 years, and which may be up to life imprisonment, or may be sentenced to death.
"(2) As used in paragraph (1)(b), the term ‘law enforcement officer’ means a public servant authorized by law or by a Government agency or Congress to conduct or engage in the prevention, investigation, prosecution or adjudication or an offense, and includes those engaged in corrections, probation, or parole functions.”.
"Hearing Required with Respect to the Death Penalty
"(g) A person shall be subjected to the penalty of death for any offense under this section only if a hearing is held in accordance with this section.
"Notice by the Government in Death Penalty Cases
"(h)(1) Whenever the Government intends to seek the death penalty for an offense under this section for which one of the sentences provided is death, the attorney for the Government, a reasonable time before trial or acceptance by the court of a plea of guilty, shall sign and file with the court, and serve upon the defendant, a notice—
"(A) that the Government in the event of conviction will seek the sentence of death; and
"(B) setting forth the aggravating factors enumerated in subsection (n) and any other aggravating factors enumerated in subsection (n) and any other aggravating factors which the Government will seek to prove as the basis for the death penalty.
"(2) The court may permit the attorney for the Government to amend this notice for good cause shown.
"Hearing Before Court or Jury
"(i)(1) When the attorney for the Government has filed a notice as required under subsection (h) and the defendant is found guilty of or pleads guilty to an offense under subsection (e), the judge who presided at the trial or before whom the guilty plea was entered, or any other judge if the judge who presided at the trial or before whom the guilty plea was entered is unavailable, shall conduct a separate sentencing hearing to determine the punishment to be imposed. The hearing shall be conducted—
"(A) before the jury which determined the defendant’s guilt;
"(B) before a jury impaneled for the purpose of hearing if—
"(i) the defendant was convicted upon a plea of guilty;
"(ii) the defendant was convicted after a trial before the court sitting without a jury;
"(iii) the jury which determined the defendant’s guilt has been discharged for a good cause; or
"(iv) after initial imposition of a sentence under this section, redetermination of the sentence under this section is necessary; or
"(C) before the court alone, upon the motion of the defendant and with the approval of the Government.
"(2) A jury impaneled under paragraph (1)(B) shall consist of 12 members, unless, at any time before the conclusion of the hearing, the parties stipulate with the approval of the court that it shall consist of any number less than 12.
"Proof of Aggravating and Mitigating Factors
"(j) Notwithstanding rule 32(c) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, when a defendant is found guilty of or pleads guilty to an offense under subsection (e), no presentence report shall be prepared. In the sentencing hearing, information may be presented as to matters relating to any of the aggravating or mitigating factors set forth in subsections (m) and (n), or any other mitigating factor or any other aggravating factor for which notice has been provided under subsection (h)(1)(B). Where information is presented relating to any of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n), information may be presented relating to any other aggravating factor for which notice has been provided under subsection (h)(1)(B). Information presented may include the trial transcript and exhibits if the hearing is held before a jury or judge not present during the trial, or at the trial judge’s discretion. Any other information relevant to such mitigating or aggravating factors may be presented by either the Government or the defendant, regardless of its admissibility under the rules governing admission of evidence at criminal trials, except that information may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or misleading the jury. The Government and the defendant shall be permitted to rebut any information received at the hearing and shall be given fair opportunity to present argument as to the adequacy of the information to establish the existence of any of the aggravating or mitigating factor and as to appropriateness in that case of imposing a sentence of death. The Government shall open the argument. The defendant shall be permitted to reply. The Government shall then be permitted to reply in rebuttal. The burden of establishing the existence of any aggravating factor is on the Government, and is not satisfied unless established beyond a reasonable doubt. The burden of establishing the existence of any mitigating factor is on the defendant, and is not satisfied unless established by a preponderance of the evidence.
"Return of Findings
"(k) The jury, or if there is no jury, the court, shall consider all the information received during the hearing. It shall return special findings identifying any aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n), found to exist. If one of the aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n)(1) and another of the aggravating factors set forth in paragraphs (2) through (12) of subsection (n) is found to exist, a special finding identifying any other aggravating factor for which notice has been provided under subsection (h)(1)(B), may be returned. A finding with respect to a mitigating factor may be made by one of more of the members of the jury, and any member of the jury who finds the existence of a mitigating factor may consider such a factor established for the purposes of this subsection, regardless of the number of jurors who concur that the factor has been established. A finding with respect to any aggravating factor must be unanimous. If an aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n)(1) is not found to exist or an aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n)(1) is found to exist but no other aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n) is found to exist, the court shall impose a sentence, other than death, authorized by law. If an aggravating factor set forth in subsection (n)(1) and one or more of the other aggravating factors set forth in subsection (n) are found to exist, the jury, or if there is no jury, the court, shall then consider whether the aggravating factors found to exists sufficiently outweigh any mitigating factor or factors found to exist, or in the absence of mitigating factors, whether the aggravating factors are themselves sufficient to justify a sentence of death. Based on this consideration, the jury by unanimous vote, or if there is no jury, the court, shall recommend that a sentence of death shall be imposed rather than a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of release or some other lesser sentence. The jury or the court, regardless of its findings with respect to aggravating and mitigating factors, is never required to impose a death sentence and the jury shall be so instructed.
"Imposition of Sentence
"(1) Upon the recommendation that the sentence of death be imposed, the court shall sentence the defendant to death. Otherwise the court shall impose a sentence, other than death, authorized by law. A sentence of death shall not be carried out upon a person who is under 18 years of age at the time the crime was committed. A sentence of death shall not be carried out upon a person who is mentally retarded. A sentence of death shall not be carried out upon a person who, as a result of mental disability—
"(1) cannot understand the nature of the pending proceedings, what such person was tried for, the reason for the punishment, or the nature of the punishment; or
"(2) lacks the capacity to recognize or understand facts which would make the punishment unjust or unlawful, or lacks the ability to convey such information to counsel or to the court.
"(m) In determining whether a sentence of death is to be imposed on a defendant, the finder of fact shall consider mitigating factors, including the following:
"(1) The defendant’s capacity to appreciate the wrongfulness of the defendant’s conduct or to conform to conduct to the requirements of law was no significantly impaired, regardless of whether the capacity was so impaired as to constitute a defense to the charge.
"(2) The defendant was under unusual and substantial duress, regardless of whether the duress was of such a degree as to constitute a defense to the charge.
"(3) The defendant is punishable as a principal (as defined in section 2 of title 18 of the United States Code) in the offense, which was committed by another, but the defendant’s participation was relatively minor, regardless of whether the participation was so minor as to constitute a defense to the charge.
"(4) The defendant could not reasonably have foreseen that the defendant’s conduct in the course of the commission of murder, or other offense resulting in death for which the defendant was convicted, would cause, or would create a grave risk of causing, death to any person.
"(5) The defendant was youthful, although not under the age of 18.
"(6) The defendant did not have a significant prior criminal record.
"(7) The defendant committed the offense under severe mental or emotional disturbance.
"(8) Another defendant or defendants, equally culpable in the crime, will not be punished by death.
"(9) The victim consented to the criminal conduct that resulted in the victim’s death.
"(10) That other factors in the defendant’s background or character mitigate against imposition of the death sentence.
"Aggravating Factors for Homicide
"(n)If the defendant is found guilty of or pleads guilty to an offense under subsection (e), the following aggravating factors are the only aggravating factors that shall be considered, unless notice of additional aggravating factors is provided under subsection (h)(1)(B):
"(1) The defendant—
"(A) intentionally killed the victim;
"(B) intentionally inflicted serious bodily injury which resulted in the death of the victim;
"(C) Intentionally engaged in conduct intending that the victim be killed or that lethal force be employed against the victim, which resulted in the death of the victim;
"(D) intentionally engaged in conduct which—
"(i) the defendant knew would create a grave risk of death to a person, other than one of the participants in the offense; and
"(ii) resulted in the death of the victim.
"(2) The defendant has been convicted of another Federal offense, or a State offense resulting in the death of a person, for which a sentence of life imprisonment or a sentence of death was authorized by statute.
"(3) The defendant has previously been convicted of two or more State or Federal offenses punishable by a term of imprisonment of more than one year, committed on different occasions, involving the distribution of a controlled substance.
"(5) In the commission of the offense or in the escaping apprehension for a violation of subsection (e), the defendant knowingly created a grave risk of death to one or more persons in addition to the victims of the offense.
"(6) The defendant procured the commission of the offense by payment, or promise of payment, of anything of pecuniary value.
"(7) The defendant committed the offense as consideration for the receipt, or in the expectation of the receipt, of anything of pecuniary value.
"(8) The defendant committed the offense after substantial planning and premeditation.
"(9) The victim was particularly vulnerable due to old age, youth, or infirmity.
"(10) The defendant had previously been convicted of violating this title or title III for which a sentence of five or more years may be imposed or had previously been convicted of engaging in a continuing criminal enterprise.
"(11) The violation of this title in relation to which the conduct described in subsection (e) occurred was a violation of section 405.
"(12) The defendant committed the offense in an especially heinous, cruel, or depraved manner in that it involved torture or serious physical abuse to the victim.
"Right of the Defendant to Justice without Discrimination
"(o)(1) In any hearing held before a jury under this section, the court shall instruct the jury that in its consideration of whether the sentence of death is justified it shall not consider the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant or the victim, and that the jury is not to recommend a sentence of death unless it has concluded that it would recommend a sentence of death for the crime in question no matter what the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant, or the victim, may be. The jury shall return to the court a certificate signed by each juror that the consideration of the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant or the victim was not involved in reaching his or her individual decision, and that the individual juror would have made the same recommendation no matter what the race, color, religious beliefs, national origin, or sex of the defendant, or the victim, may be.
"(2) Not later than one year from the date of enactment of the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988, the Comptroller General shall conduct a study of the various procedures used by the several States for determining whether or not to impose the death penalty in particular cases, and shall report to the Congress on whether or not any or all of the various procedures create a significant risk that the race of a defendant, or the race of a victim against whom a crime was committed, influence the likelihood that defendants in those States will be sentenced to death. In conducting the study required by this paragraph, the General Accounting Office shall—
"(A) use ordinary methods of statistical analysis, including methods comparable to those ruled admissible by the courts in race discrimination cases under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964;
"(B) study only crimes occurring after January 1, 1976; and
"(C) determine what, if any, other factors including any relation between any aggravating or mitigating factors and the race of the victim or the defendant, may account for any evidence that the race of the defendant, or the race of the victim, influences the likelihood that defendants will be sentenced to death. In addition, the General Accounting Office shall examine separately and include in the report, death penalty cases involving crimes similar to those covered under this section.
"Sentencing in Capital Cases in Which Death Penalty is no Sought or Imposed
"(p) If a person is convicted for an offense under subsection (e) and the court does not impose the penalty of death, the court may impose a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.
"Appeal in Capital Cases; Counsel for Financially Unable Defendants
"(q)(1) In any case in which the sentence of death is imposed under this section, the sentence of death shall be subject to review by the court of appeals upon appeal by the defendant. Notice of appeal must be filed within the time prescribed for appeal of judgment in section 2107 of title 28, United States Code. An appeal under this section may be consolidated with an appeal of the judgment of conviction. Such review shall have priority over all other cases.
"(2) On review of the sentence, the court of appeals shall consider the record, the evidence submitted during the trial, the information submitted during the sentencing hearing, the procedures employed in the sentencing hearing, and the special finding returned under this section.
"(3) The court shall affirm the sentence if it determines that—
"(A) the sentence of death was not imposed under the influence of passion, prejudice, or any other arbitrary factor; and
"(B) the information supports the special finding of the existence of every aggravating factor upon which the sentence was based, together with, or the failure to find, any mitigating factors as set forth or allowed in this section.
In all other cases the court shall remand the case for reconsideration under this section. The court of appeals shall state in writing the reasons for its disposition of the review of this sentence.
"(4)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, in every criminal action in which a defendant is charged with a crime which may be punishable by death, a defendant who is or becomes financially unable to obtain adequate representation or investigative, expert, or other reasonably necessary services at any time either—
"(i) before judgment; or
"(ii) after the entry of a judgment imposing a sentence of death but before the execution of judgment;
shall be entitled to the appointment of one or more attorneys and the furnishing of such other services in accordance with paragraphs (5), (6), (7), (8), and (9).
"(B) In any post conviction proceeding under section 2254 or 2255 of title 28, United States Code, seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence, any defendant who is or becomes financially unable to obtain adequate representation or investigative, expert, or other reasonably necessary services shall be entitled to the appointment of one or more attorneys and the furnishing of such other services in accordance with paragraphs (5), (6), (7), (8), and (9).
"(5) If the appointment is made before judgment, at least one attorney so appointed must have been admitted to practice in the court in which the prosecution is to be tried for not less than five years, and must have had not less than three years experience in the actual trial of felony prosecutions in that court.
"(6) If the appointment is made after judgment, at least one attorney so appointed must have been admitted to practice in the court of appeals for not less than five years, and must have had not less than three years experience in the handling of appeals in that court in felony cases.
"(7) With respect to paragraphs (5) and (6), the court, for good cause, may appoint another attorney whose background, knowledge, or experience would otherwise enable him or her to properly represent the defendant, with due consideration to the seriousness of the possible penalty and to the unique and complex nature of the litigation.
"(8) Unless replaced by similarly qualified counsel upon the attorney’s own motion or upon motion of the defendant throughout every subsequent stage of available judicial proceedings including pretrial proceedings, trial, sentencing, motions for a new trial, appeals, applications, for writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States, and all available post-conviction process, together with applications for stays of execution and other appropriate motions and procedures, and shall also represent the defendant in such competency proceedings and proceedings for executive or other clemency as may be available to the defendant.
"(9) Upon finding in ex parte proceedings that investigative, expert or other services are reasonably necessary for the representation of the defendant, whether in connection with issues relating to guilt or sentence, the court shall authorize the defendant’s attorneys to obtain such services on behalf of the defendant and shall order the payment of fees and expenses therefore, under paragraph (10). Upon finding that a timely procurement of such services could not practicably await prior authorization, the court may authorize the provision of and payment for such services nunc pro tunc.
"(10) Notwithstanding the rates and the maximum limits generally applicable to criminal cases and any other provision of law to the contrary, the court shall fix the compensation to be paid to attorneys appointed under this subsection and the fees and expenses to be paid for investigative, expert, and other reasonably necessary services authorized under paragraph (9), at such rates or amounts as the court determines to be reasonably necessary to carry out the requirements to paragraphs (4) through (9).
"Refusal to Participate by State and Federal Correctional Employees
"(r) No employee of any State department of corrections or the Federal Bureau of Prisons and no employee providing services to that department or bureau under contract shall be required, as a condition of that employment, or any contextual obligation to be in attendance at or to participate in any execution carried out under this section if such participation is contrary to the moral or religious convictions of the employee. For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘participation in executions’ includes personal preparation of the condemned individual and the apparatus used for execution and supervision of the activities of other personnel in carrying out such activities”.
SEC. 7002. GAO STUDY OF THE COST OF EXECUTIONS
(a) STUDY.—No later than three years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall carry out a study to review the cost of implementing the procedures for imposing and carrying out a death sentence prescribed by this title.
(b) SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT.—Such study shall consider, but not be limited to, information concerning impact on workload of the Federal prosecutors and judiciary and law enforcement necessary to obtain capital sentences and executions under this Act.
(c) SUBMISSION OF REPORT—Not later than four years after date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report describing the details of the study.
Source: US Government Printing Office, "Public Laws 100-677 through 100-713," www.gpo.gov (accessed Aug. 22, 2012)